Napoleonic Leaders

Here are brief biographies over all the commanders featured in the NBS-Games. Names in bold indicates that the commander is represented with a counter in that game, names in italics that the commander were present at the battle, but does not have a counter of his own.

Name

Early Years

1792

1793

1794

1795

1796

1797

1798

1799

1800

1801

1802-04

1805

1806

1807

1808

1809

1810

1811

1812

1813

1814

1815

Later Years

Notes

Colonel Vicente Maria Acevedo, Captain-General of the Asturias

No details known.

 

Pyrenees (?).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commander of a milita regiment.

Made Captain General of Asturia and commands its raw Army. Wounded at Espinosa and killed in the pursuit after the battle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Asturias first war hero about who very little is known.

Alexander I Romanov, Tsar of Russia

Born 1777 in St. Pertsburg. Raised by his grandmother Catherine The Great who oddly enough allows him to be exposed to quite liberal ideas.

 

Married to Elisabeth of Baden. The marriage is a disaster.

 

 

His father is crowned Tsar in November and himself is made heir.

 

 

 

Mixes with liberal intelectuals.

Crowned Tsar on March the 24th after the murder of his father. He was not involved in the plot himself, but had been moving in the same circles as the killers.

Initially fascinated by Napoleon, but eventually leads Russia into the Third Coalition. Works hard on reforming Russian society, but very little eventually come out of his work.

The disaster at Austerlitz crushes his belief in himself as a commander.

 

Treaty of Tilsit.

War with Sweden. Conquest of Finland. Napoleon negotiates for his 16 year-old sister's hand.

 

 

 

Treaty of St Petersburg. Campaign in Russia. Alters between just looking on and terrorizing his generals.

Campaigns in Germany. In joint command during the spring campaign. Again his role is somewhat undefined.

Campaign in France.

Strives to treat the defeated France with clemency.

Becomes more and more despotic and withdraws form public life. Dies from fever in Taganrog 1825. According to legend he withdrew to become a hermit.

A true nobleman, elegant and charming, but with a slightly depressive streak. He was quite easily influenced by others and his court was full of people trying to win his favor. As a ruler his liberal views was rather superficial and in his later years he turned into something of a mystic and withdrew from public life.

General of Infantry Peter Ivanovich Bagration, Prince of Siberia.

Born1765 in Kizlyar the son of the Georgian Genral Ivan Bagration.

Joins army 1782. Fights the Turks 1783-86 and Caucasus 88-90. His bravery at Ochakov is noted by Suvarov.

Major of Kiev Cavalry.

 

Shines in Poland. Becomes one of Suvorov's most trusted subordinates. Lt-Col.

Poland.

 

 

Col.

Shines commanding Suvorov's vanguard in Italy. Captures Brescia and Lecco. Novi and Trebbia. Commands rearguard in the Swiss campaign. Maj-Gen.

 

 

 

On the Danube. Commands Kutusov's rearguard with great skill. Almost trapped at Hollabrun. His command survivies Austerlitz intact. Earns the Order of St.George.

 

At Benningsen's staff. Heavy fighting at Eylau and Heilsberg. Commands the left at Friedland and takes the blunt of the French attacks.

Divisional command in Finland. Captures Tammerfors and Åbo.

Raids Sweden across the Ice via Åland. General of Infantry. Fights the Turks on the Danube as commander of the Army of Moldavia

Still on the Danube.

Podolsk Army.

Commands Second Army of the West. Moghilev and Smolensk. Falls out with Barclay. Stubbornly commands the Left Wing at Borodino. Mortally wounded as his hip is shattered. He is later burried at on the Battlefield.

 

 

 

 

A stern, intelligent and charismatic leader with a savage temper. He was seccond to none as a brawling rearguard-commander and all in all perhaps the best Russian battlefield commander of the era. His romantic looks made him a hero at the Russian Court, despite that his Prince-title was a rather dubious Georgian one.

General der Kavalerie Henri (Heinrich) de Bellegrade, Graf

Born, of French decent, in Dresden 1756.

Joins the Saxon Army in 1776 and enters Austrian service in 1781. Fights the Turks 1788-89.

 

On the staff of the Army of the Netherlands.

FML

 

Serves as Karl deputy on the Rhine.

Italy.

Tries to introduce the Corps system in the Austrian Army.

Various commands. Italy and Switzerland. Advisor to the Austrian foregin minister.

Commands brigade in Hadik's Division. Montebello and Marengo were he takes over the Division after Hadik's death. Commands AoIty after the Battle.

 

 

In temporal charge of the Hofkriegsraat. With Karl in Italy. Commands centre (wing?) at Caldiero.

 

 

 

Commands Bohemian Army. Later just I Corps. Abensberg. In the mist of the fighting at Aspern-Essling and Wagram. Znaim.

Governor of Galicia. FM

 

 

Replaces Hiller as Governor of Italy.

Governor of Italy. Fights Eugene's Italians.

 

Governor of Italy until 1825. Dies in Vienna 1845.

Another skilled, stable and gallant Austrian commander. A fine administrator and staff officer. Handled his Italian Governorship well.

Marshal Jéan-"Baptiste" Julés Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo, King of Sweden (as Karl-Johan)

Born 1763 the son of a lawyer.

Enlisted in 1780, SergMaj. in 1788. Known as "Sgt Pretty-Legs" among the girls. Serves in the West Indies. 1791 commissioned after saving his Col. from lynching.

AoNor.

AoRhi.

On the Rhine. GdD

Still on the Rhine.

Own command on the Rhine. Limber.

4th Division, AoIty. Tagliamento.

Sent on a disastrous diplomatic mission to Vienna. Marries Napoleon's former girlfriend Desirée Clary. Commands on the Rhine and Danube, but leaves his post in disgust.

Briefly Minister of War. Does not support Napoleon's coup.

Commands Army of the West. Accused of plotting against Napoleon.

 

Almost made Ambassador to the United States. Governor of Hamburg. Allegedly Napoleon made him Marshalin 1804 to secure his loyality.

I Corps. Schleiz and Munich. Little more than a spectator at Austerlitz

Prince. I Corps. His blunders between Jena and Auerstädt is an issue of controversy to this day. Halle, Ebling and Lübeck. Poland.

Skillfully leads I Corps on the French left. Mohrungen, Passrage and Spanden. Wounded twice and leaves I Corps. Governor of the Hansaetic Towns. Occupies Jutland.

Responsible fo the defense of Northen Germany.

Commands Saxon Army. Bohemia. Commandes IX Corps at Wagram and are unjustly blamed for a lot of the French failures that day. Disgraced but recalled to contain the Walcheren landing.

Elected Crown Prince of Sweden after some very strange diplomatic moves by the Swedish Goverment. Converts to Protestantism.

 

The treaty of St Petersburg moves Sweden closer to the Anti-French camp.

Saxony. Commands AoNor. Victorious at Dennewitz and Gross-Beeren. Constantly at odds with Blücher. Leipzig.

Occupies the Low Countries and Liege.

Conquers Norway from Denmark.

Crowned Karl XIV Johan 1818. Rules Sweden quite successfully and takes up growing mushrooms in his later years. Dies in Stockholm 1844.

A tall, elegant man. Despised by many as a petty turncoat, but none of his critics did managed to survive the era a King. He was quite a prudent commander that because of a certain female as well as his flair for intrigues had great problems getting along with Napoleon. Had "Death to the Tyrants" tattooed on his arm.

Marshall Jéan-Baptiste Bessiéres, Duke of Istra

Born 1768 in Lot (Preissac?). Studied to became a surgeon as his father but ran out of money.

1789 saw him joining the National Guard and he was elected Cpt. The Constitutional Guard.

Befriends Murat. Demoted after being on the loosing side in the fight for the Tuileries.

Serves as a cavalryman in the Pyrenees.

Spain with 22nd Chasseurs a Cheval. Reinstalled as Cpt after distinguished service at Boulou.

AoIty. Meets Napoleon. The two develops a close friendship.

AoIty. Singlehandly captures an Austrian gun at Borghetto and is given command of Napoleon's Guides. Arcola.

Maj. Rivoli. Escorts captured Austrian Colors to Paris.

AoOri. Acre.

1st Aboukir. GdB. Returns to France with Napoleon and supports his coup.

Commands Horse Grenadiers of The Consular Guard. Marengo. GdD.

Commands the Guard Cavalry. Marries one of Josephine's closer friends and intrigues against Lannes. Shares the role of Imperial Sidekick with Murat.

Marshal 1804, despite never having led anything larger than a brigade. Colonel General of the Imperial Guard.

Commands Imperial Guard Cavalry. Austerlitz.

Guard Cavalry. Jena. II Cavalry Corps. His limitations as an independent commander are reveled. Biezun.

Back to the Guard Cavalry. Eylau and Friedland. Tilsit. Oversees Jerome's wedding in Württenberg.

Corps Command in Northeast Spain. Victorious at Medina del Rio Seco. Recalled to Germany to command Reserve Cavalry Corps.

Danube. Reserve Cavalry Corps. Landshut. Defated at Neumarkt. Aspern-Essling. Badly wounded at Wagram. Made Duke. Commands AoNor. Walcheren and Flushing.

Governor of Stassbourg. In petty conflict with Napoleon over the Emperor's martial morals.

Governor of Northen Spain. Quarrels with Massena. Fuentes de Oñoro. Repulses Spanish invasion of Laon.

Recalled from Spain after endless quarrels. Russia. Commands Guard Cavalry. Blamed for fueling Napoleon's caution at Borodino. Depressed and disillusioned.

Commands the Guard in Saxony. Killed by a cannonball at Weissenfels.

 

 

 

A devout catholic that wore his hair powdered and had a sympathetic air of "old school" about him. Brave and honest, he seem to have been generally admired (even by the Spanish) for his just and kind manners. He was a cautious, not-overly skilled, commander that was one of Napoleons closer friends and was probably at his best as the Emperors "old war buddy.".

Lieutenant-General Joaquin Blake y Joyes

Born in Malaga 1759. Of Noble Irish decent.

Cadet America Regiment 1774. Lt. 1775. Cadet drillmaster. Gibraltar and Mahon. 1st Lt 1787. Captain 1791.

 

Pyrenees. Zara and Urrugne. Drills the the new-formed Volunteers of Castille. Wounded at La Muga.

 

Lt-Col. Leads the Elite Voluntarios de la Corona regiment. Col.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Made Birg-Gen on retirement 1802.

 

 

 

Lt.-Gen. Made C-in-C of Galicia and commands the Army of Galicia. Medina de Rioseco and Espinosa. Saves the remnants of his army. Relieved.

Commands Army of Aragon. Fights Suchet. Victorious at Alaniz, defeated at Maria & Belchite. Tries to relieve Gerona. Resigns.

Regent of the Kingdom (a honorary title). Commands Army of the Centre. Defeated at Baza.

Albuera. Captain-General.

Fights Suchet again, this time with disastrous results. Taken prisoner in Valencia.

 

Released.

Cheif Engineer of the Army.

Enters poltics as a liberal. Dies in 1827.

A strict, yet likeable man, all in all perhaps the most reliable of all Spanish commanders. A carefull and prudent leader that for four years fought impossble odds and endless disappointments with an unmatched tenancy.

Field Marshal Friedrich Willhem, Count of Buxhöwden (Boxhoevden, et al.)

Born 1750 into the German-Estonian nobility. Marries one of Catharine the Great's illegitimate daughters and rises in the ranks.

 

Poland.

Poland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lt-Gen.

Commands the Central Reserve in Poland. Drunk (?) while leading the left wing at Austerlitz to its destruction.

Leads 2nd Army in Poland.

Poland. Falls out with Benningsen and is relieved of command.

Leads conquest of Finland.

Governor of Finland.

Forced to retire.

Dies.

 

 

 

 

 

An archtypical Russian general promoted through his connections with Catharine, found of whores, dogs and alcohol. Oddly enough he was very popular as Governor of newly conquered Finland.

General de Division Marie-Francois Auguste Ca(f)farelli du Falga, Comte

Born 1766. Joins the Sardinian Army in 1785.

Enters French service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

With the Consular Guard at Marengo.

 

Dipomatic missions. In the Vatican.

GdD. Commands Division in I Corps. Schleitz, Munich and Austerlitz.

On Napoleon's Staff.

In Italy.

Italy.

Spain.

Divisional Command in Spain. Biscay.

Spain.

Bugous. Sent to command AoNor.

On Napoleon's staff.

Various diplomatic apointments. Escorts Marie Louise to Vienna.

Sides with Napoleon. Retierd by the Burbons.

Made peer of France in 1831. Dies in 1849.

Younger Brother of Napoleon's Chief Engineer with the same name.

Marshal Nicholas Louis Davout, Duke of Auerstädt, Prince of Eggmühl

Born 1770 the son of an officer and lesser nobleman.

Commissioned into his father's regiment in 1788. Studies unusually hard for a young nobleman. Wholeheartedly supports the revolution. Arrested in 1791 but then elected Lt-Col.

Commands the 3rd Yonne Volunteer battalion.

Neerwinden. Chases Dumouriez away. GdB. Forced to resign for political reasons.

Back commanding cavalry on the Rhine.

Serves on the Rhine under Desaix.

Kehl and Haslach.

 

AoOri as Desaix' C-o-S. Meets Napoleon. The Pyramids.

Upper Egypt. 1st Aboukir.

Briefly in British captivity. GdD. Commands the AoIty's Cavalry.

Inspector General of Cavalry. Commands the Grenadiers of the Guard. Marries LeClerc's sister Aimee and becomes the brother-in-law of Napoleon's sister Pauline.

Marshal and Colonel General of the Imperial Guard in 1804.

III Corps. Ulm. Crushes Meervelt at Maria Zell. Commands extreme right at Austerlitz.

III Corps. Defeats Brunswick's Prussians at Auerstädt, outnumbered three to one. Berlin, Warsaw and Golymin. Aids Lannes at Pultusk.

III Corps. Turns the Russian right at Eylau. Köningsberg. As Governor of the Duchy of Warsaw he runs Poland in the most despotic fashion.

Duke. Creates an impressive intelligence network monitoring Austria and Germany.

III Corps (initially 60 000 strong). Hit by the Austrian advance on the Danube. Breaks out from Ratisbon. Defeats the Austrian main army at Teugen-Hausen, Eggmühl and Ratisbon. Turns the Austrian left at Wagram. Znaim.

Commands Army of Germany. Governor of Northern Germany. Quarrels with Bourienne.

Forms and trains the elite I Corps on the Elbe.

I Corps. Russia. Commands Southern wing. Moghilev and Smolensk. Wounded at Borodino. Badly mauled at Fiodoroivskoy. Maloyaroslavetz, Kolotsköi, Viasma, Krasnoe and Beresina. Thanks to his harsh discipline his troops fare relatively well.

Skillfully leads the defense of Hamburg. Defeats Walmoden at Lauenburg. Earns a terrible reputation among the Hamburgers.

Surrenders Hamburg on Louis XVIII order, one month after Napoleon's abdication.

Sides with Napoleon. Governor of Paris and Minster of War. In facto Supreme Commander after Napoleon's defeat. Involved in the events surrounding Napoleon's second abdication.

Disgraced until 1817. Dies 1823.

An extremely talented commander and a harsh disciplinarian who's outbursts was feared even by men such as Vandamme. A quite dour and tactless man that was often ridiculed for his sloppy appearance (he was bald and wore glasses). One of the few Marshals that was excellent at handling independent commands and his leadership in 1805-1809 is perhaps the most outstanding of the entire era.

General de Division Louis Charles Desaix, Chevalier de Veygoux

Born of poor noble stock in 1768 near Riom.

Commissioned 1783. Falls out with his family and nobility in general in 1791 and joins the Republican army.

On the Rhine.

Rhine. GdB.

Rhine. GdD.

Stirling service under Jourdan.

Under Moreau. Rastadt, Ettlingen and Neresheim. Victorious at Biberach. Defends Kiel. Becomes a hero in the public eye.

In Italy under Napoleon.

AoOri. Malta, then Egypt. Victorious at Ramanihe. The Pyramids.

Conquers Upper Egypt. Rules well enough to be known as the "Just Sultan."

Captured by the British en route for France. Released and joins Napoleon in Italy. Killed leading the decisive charge at Marengo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Died securing Napoleon's eternal fame and was made a central figure in Napoleon's own mythology. Living for war only, he was an intelligent, popular (even abroad) and skilled commander, that was well known for his mild maners and simple, rather spartan, life-style.

General Dimitri Sergeivich Dokturov (Dukhturov et. al)

Born 1756. His early career is shrouded in mystery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Divisional command at Austerlitz. Goes down fighing.

Divisional Command under Buxhöveden. Fights well at Golymin.

Divisional command. Commandes the reserve at Eylau. Heilsberg and Freidland.

 

 

 

 

V Corps, First Army. Covers the retreat from Smolensk. Leads IV Corps in the centre at Borodino and takes command after Bagration. Maloyaroslavetz.

Campaign in Germany. Sent to command Army against the Turks.

Campaign in France.

 

Dies 1816.

Unusually modest and simple in his tastes and even refused to wear his medals on his coat. Was recognized as one of the more calm and professional Russian commanders.

General de Division Jean Louis Brigitte Espagne, Comte

Born 1769 in Auch.

Joins The Queens Dragoons as a trooper in 1787

Army of the Alps.

Army of the Alps.

Mont Cenis.

AoRhi.

AoRhi.

 

 

GbB. Under Jourdan. CoS to Massena.

With Moreau. Moesskirch, Höchstädt and Hohenlinden.

Leaves Service.

 

GdD. AoIty. Caldiero.

Neaples. Gaeta.

Commands 3rd Cuirassier Division. Danzig and Helisberg - where he is wounded seven times - Friedland.

Count.

Danube. 3rd Cuirassiers. Killed by canister shot to his face at Aspern-Essling.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franz II, Emperor of Germany (Later Franz I of Austria)

Born 1768 in Florence. Sent to Vienna 1784 to learn state craft and manners. His Father is crowned emperor Leopold II 1790.

Succeeds his father.

 

 

In the Low Countries.

 

Peace of Campo Formio.

 

 

 

Peace of Luneville.

 

Hapless spectator at Austerlitz. Peace of Pressburg.

Degraded to Austrian Emperor as Napoleon dissolves the Holy Roman Empire.

 

 

Takes no active part in the war. Spectator at Wagram. Peace of Schönbrunn.

His daughter Marie-Louise marries Napoleon.

 

Conference of Dresden.

His Austria joins Sixth Coalition. Dresden and Leipzig.

 

Hosts Conference of Vienna.

"The Good Kaiser Franz" pursues a mild and prudent, but conservative rule. Dies in 1835 in Vienna.

A mild and unmartial man who left most diplomatic work to Metternich and had his brother Karl handle military affairs. His greatest gift was probably his good understanding of his own limitations.

General de Division Louis Friant, Comte

Born 1758 a vax-polisher's son.

Joins French Guards 1781 and transfers to the Paris National Guard in1879.

Elected Lt-Col.

On the Rhine.

On the Meuse. Fleurs.

GdB.

 

AoIty. With Bernadotte. Tagliamento and Leibach.

AoOri. Pyramids.

 

GdD. Still in Egypt.

Returns to France.

General Inspector of Infantry.

Commands Division in III Corps. Ulm, Maria Zell and Austerlitz.

III Corps. Auerstädt, Berlin, Warsaw, and Golymin.

III Corps. Wounded at Eylau.

In Warzaw. Count. The three horses he lost at Austerlitz makes it into his coat of arms.

III Corps. Fights Bellegrade in Frenconia. Teugen-Hausen and Eggmühl. Badly wounded at Wagram.

Army of Germany (?)

Trains division in Davout's I Corps.

I Corps. Russia. Moghilev, Smolensk and Borodino. Badly wounded.

Chamberlain to Napoleon. Commands Old Guard Division in Saxony. Lützen, Bautzen, Dresden, Leipzig and Hanau.

France. Commands Old Guard Division. Montmiral, Chateau-Thierry, Vauchamps. Fontainebleau.

Commands Royal Guard units. Then again: Greandiers of the Old Guard. Ligny. Wounded at Waterloo. Retires.

Dies in 1829.

An excellent tactican that was highly regarded by his men. Known to be a honest and frank man. Brother in-law to Davout.

General de Division Gaspard Amedée Gardanne

Born in Var 1758. Lt of the costal artillery in 1779, 1780 Garde du Corps. Retires in 1784 but returns in 1791 and is elected Lt-Col of Var Volunteers.

Army of the Alps.

AoIty. Acting GdB. Siege of Toulon.

AoIty.

AoIty. Col. de Tende.

AoIty under Augereau. Borghetto, Castilgione, Mincio and Arcola. GdB. Governor of Verona.

Venice.

 

Captured after defending Alessandria. Supports Napoleon's Coup and begs to be placed under his command.

GdD. AoRes under Victor. Awarded saber of honor for his stellar conduct at Marengo.

 

1803 commands French Contingent in the Kingdon of Italy.

AoIty. Commands 1st Division. Caldiero.

Commands Grenadiers of the Neapolitan Army. Besieges Gaeta. VI Corps' 2nd Division in Poland.

Eylau. Falls out with Ney. Danzig. On a mission to Silesia he dies from fever in Breslau.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One of the mainstays of Napoleon's Army of Italy.

General de Division Charles Etienne Gudin de la Sablonniere, Comte

Born of noble blood in 1768. Educated in Brienne.

Joins Royal Guards at the age of 14.

Santo Domingo.

AoNor.

 

C-o-S to St Cyr. Mainz.

AoRhi.

C-o-S to Lefevbre.

 

GdB. With Soult.

AoRhi. Stockach, Moesskirch and Memmingen. GdD.

 

 

Commands Division in III Corps. Ulm and Maria Zell.

III Corps. Wounded at Auerstädt. Custrin, Warsaw and Pultusk.

III Corps. Works wonders at Eylau.

Count.

III Corps. Teugen-Hausen, Landshut and Eggmühl. Wounded four times at Wagram.

Army of Germany (?)

With Davout's I Corps.

I Corps. Russia. Moghilev and Smolensk. Dies from wounds suffered at Valutina.

 

 

 

 

An elegant man, part of Davout's team of elite fighters.

Feldmarschall-Leutnant Karl Hadik (Haddick) von Futak, Graf

Born in 1756 the son of Hugarian cavalry-hero Andras Hadik. Joins the army at 17, makes Cpt at 20 and Col at 30, mostly in his father's Hussar Regiment. Distinguishes himself against the Turks. Belgrade. 1790 in Netherlands.

With Coburg in the Netherlands.

Aldenhoven, Gilles, Icumont and Wattignes.

Maj-Gen. Knight of the MTO.

Brigade Commander.

With Karl. Wetzlar, Kircheip and Amberg. Commands Karls cavalry at Würzburg. Commander of the MTO.

FML.

 

Divisional commander in AoIty.

Defends the St. Bernard Pass aginst Napoleon. Killed leading his division at Marengo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A by Austrian standards remarkably young General that was a very skilled cavalry and avance-guard commander.

General de Division Jéan Joseph Ange D'Hautpoul , Comte

Born 1754 into an old noble house. Joins The Royal Dragoons in 1771. Commisioned in 1777.

Lt Col. Maubeuge.

 

Avoids being purged as his troopers threatens to revolt if he is charged. Fleurs.

GdB.

GdD. Wounded at Altenkirchen.

Maj. Rivoli. Escorts captured Austrian Colors to Paris.

 

1st Stockach. Accused of disobedience by Jourdan but cleared by court martial.

Commands Moreau's reserve cavalry. 2nd Stockach and Hohenlinden.

 

 

Commands 2nd Heavy Cavalry Division. Leads massive charges at Austerlitz.

Brief stint as senator. 2nd Heavy Cavalry Division. Jena. The Pursuit across Prussia.

Poland. Hof. Mortaly wounded at Eylau.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A tough, straight-forward fighter. He was a big, imposing man known for his colorful language.

General Johann Hiller, Baron

Born in Brody 1754. Commissioned into the Artillery in 1770. Fights the Turks 1788-1791.

Various assignments fighting the French.

 

 

 

AoRhi.

 

 

With Karl at Zürich. Wounded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI Corps. Comes to command the right wing at Abensberg. Landshut. Defeats Bessieres at Neumarkt. Ebelsberg and Aspern-Essling. Falls out with Karl just before Wagram and calls in sick.

 

 

 

Sterling service in Italy. In conflict with Belegrade.

Italy.

 

Dies in Zwov 1819.

A skilled and dependable, but quite testy, commander that unfortunately had great problems getting along with Karl. He hadled independent command well.

Fieldmarshal Friedrich, Prince Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Born in Maastricht 1757, into the Hechingen line of the Hohenzollerns. Commissioned 1775 into the Dutch Army. Joined the Austrian Army for the War of Bavarian Succession and later fought the Turks. Lt-Col.

 

Col. Rhine.

Rhine.

Still on the Rhine.

Maj-Gen. AoIty. Various commands.

AoIty. Commands Brigade and later Division. Casitiglione and Arcola.

 

Mantua and Modena. Independent command in Tuscany. FML.

Commander of Genoa. Pozzolo.

Galicia

Commander of West Galicia.

Divisional Commander. Leads a small breakout from Ulm. Bohemia. Strecken.

 

 

 

III Corps, Teugen-Hausen and Eggmühl. Leads II Corps through heavy fighting in the centre at both Aspern-Essling and Wagram. GdK.

Commander of Inner Austria.

 

Commands Reserve Corps.

Commander of Inner Austria.

Illyria.

II Corps. Strasbourg.

1825 President of The Hofkriegsrat. 1830 Fieldmarshal, retires. Dies in Vienna 1844.

An old Austrian war-horse. Did very well as an administrator.

Feldmarschall-Leutnant Konrad Valentin von Kaim, Freiherr

Born in Offenburg, Baden the son of a Baker 1730. Joins the French Army in 1750 and switches to the Austrian twenty years later. Makes Col. 1788. Supresses Belgian revolt of 1790.

On the Rhine. Orchies and Maudle. Knight of the MTO.

Mainz. Maj-Gen.

 

 

Commands Karl's Grenadiers. Rastadt, Amberg and Würzburg.

FML.

 

Commands Division in AoIty.

Wonded at Verona. Besieges and captures Turin. Leads Division at Marengo. Killed on the Minico 25th December.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A aging front-line fighter, held in high regard by his colleagues. One of Melas' trusted advisors.

Field Marshal Karl (Charles) Ludvig Johan, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Teschen

Born 1771 in Florence as the third son of the future Emperor Leopold II. Trained to become a soldier from a very young age. Adopted by the Duke of Saxe-Teschen.

Joins the Army in Saxe-Teschen's Netherlands. Commands brigade at Jemappes (aged 21).

Governor-General of Netherlands. Aged 23 he shares army command with Saxe-Coburg. Victorious at Neerwinden but repulsed at Wattigines.

Defeated at Fleurus.

 

Field Marshal. Successfully commands AoRhi. Rastadt, Amberg and Würzburg.

Commands the Army of the Alps. In Italy.

Figurehead of the Austrian "Hawks."

Campaigns on the Rhine. Biberach. Routs Jourdan at Stockach. Resigns after quarrelling with Suvorov.

Governor of Bohemia. Recalled to become C-in-C. Stops Moreau.

 

Minister of War.

Commands Army of Hungary. Defeats Massena at Caldiero and escapes north.

 

Leads reconstruction of the Austrian Army. Creates the Landwehr and improves army training.

Opposes the idea of a new war with France.

Leads the Austrian invasion of Bavaria. Teugen-Hausen, Abensberg and Eggmühl. Victorious at Aspern-Essling. Defeated and wounded at Wagram. Armistice of Znaim. Retires.

Becomes Napoleon's nephew.

 

 

 

 

Governor of Mainz. Marries Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilberg. They have four children.

Becomes Duke of Saxe-Teschen. Dies in Vienna 1847.

A mild, intelligent and quite shy man that was a most able commander and reformer, that unfortunately had to fight an endless uphill battle with the Austrian military bureaucracy. Suffered from epilepsy.

General der Kavalerie Johann Klenau, Graf

Born in Prauge 1758 into the old Bohemian nobility.

Joins infantry in 1775 as a Lt. (17 years old!). War of Bavarian Succession. Maj. 1788. Turkish war.

 

Upper Rhine. Lt-Col.

Belgium.

Leads decisive charge at Handschuchsheim. MTO and Col.

AoIty. Advance Guard commander. Salo-Lonato battles. Surrenders in Mantua.

Gen-Maj.

 

Excellent work as independent commader. Besieges Mantua. Defeats Macdonald at St Giovani. Trebbia, Bologna, Florence and Rapallo.

South Germany. FML. Defeats Augerau at Nuremberg.

In Prague.

 

Divisional Commander. Captured at Ulm.

 

 

On the Hofkriegsrat.

Again sterling service. With Bellegrade. Divisonal command at Aspern-Essling. Fights Massena leading III Corps at Wagram. Znaim. Commander of MTO.

 

 

 

GdK. IV Corps. Wachau-Leipzig. Blockades Dresden. Transfered to Italy.

Governor of Moravia.

Moravia.

Dies in Moravia 1819.

One of the best Austrian Corps commanders; aggressive, skillful and dependable. Was considered extremely young by his colleagues.

Grand Duke Konstantin (Constantine) Romanov

Born 1779 the younger brother of the Tsar-to-be Alexander. Raised by Catherine II who named him in a fit of longing for Constantinople. As a kid he frequently bit and kicked his tutors.

 

 

As teenager he develops a terrible temper.

 

 

 

 

His Father sends him off to the army to learn some manners. On his way he thows a two-week party in Vienna. With Suvarov. At Novi were he walks about in point-blank canister-fire.

Studies military matters and becomes an obsessive drillmaster that regards an officer as a mere "machine."

His father is murdered and his older brother is crowned tsar.

 

Fights hard in command of the Guard Corps at Austerlitz. Formaly declared Tsarevitch.

Commands the Guard en route for Poland.

Heilsberg. Goes down in flames at Freidland. Tilsit. Befriends Murat (and his tailor).

 

 

Counsels against conflict with France.

 

Guard Corps. Heavy fighting commanding V Corps at Borodino.

Primary Supernumerary in the Allied army. Commands reserve at Bautzen, but otherwise seem to have spent most of his time intriguing against his colleagues.

Campaign in France.

 

Made Viceroy of Poland in 1816 and does a great job drilling the Polish army. He soon manages to beome unpopular enough to provoke a popular rising and 1830 he is forced to flee Poland diguised as a woman. He dies of cholera a year later in Vitebsk.

A somewhat more agressive as well as crazier version of his older brother, albeit with slightly greater military skill. He was an insanely brave Divisional commander and could with luck a handle a Corps. But the army command his rank and pride demanded was beyond him, something that caused both him and his surroundings a lot of grief.

Field Marshal Michail Illarionovich Golenischev-Kutusov (Katuzov, et. al.), Prince of Smolensk

Born an engineer general's son in St. Petersburg 1745. Joined the army as an artillery cadet at 12. Fought in Poland 1764-69 and Crimea 1770-74. Shot in face and loses one eye. While recovering he travels Europe and meets Fredick II. Meets Suvarov during the Turkish War. Commands Bug Chasseur Corps. Odessa, Benda, Ismail, Rimnik and Nashin. Again shot through the face. Governor of Southern Ukraine.

 

Ambassador Extraordinary to Constantinople.

Director (head teacher) of the Land Cadet Corps. At the same time Commander of the Finnish Army.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Governor of St Petersburg. Stays out of the plot against Tsar Paul.

Out of favour with Alexander.

Recalled to command the Danube Army. Conducts the skillfull retreat to Vienna, Victorious at Durrenstein. In very nominal command at Austerlitz.

Leads withdrawal to Russia. Disgraced but awarded the Order of St.Vladimir.

Governor of Kiev.

Subordinated role in the Army of Moldavia. Quarrels with his superior Prozorovsky and is dismissed.

Commander of Lithuanian Military district.

 

Very successfully leads army on Danube against the Turks. Treaty of Bucharest.

Recalled from Danube. In retirement for a while before being made C-in-C. Field Marshal. Despite being obese and close to invalided he saves Russia. Borodino, Vinkovno, Maloyaroslavetz, Krasnoe and Beresina. Prince of Smolensk.

Relieved due to ill health in April. Dies in Bunzlau, Silesia, from exhaustion. Burried as a hero in St Petersburg.

 

 

 

One of the men that contributed most to Napoleons evetual downfall. A brutish, cunning and tough commander that was loved by his troops, but drove his coleagues crazy. He was also considered very courteous and cultivated, knew at least six languages, liked his women young, ready "dirty French novels" and drank heavily even by Russian standards.

General Louis-Alexandre-Arnault de Langeron, Count

Born in Paris 1763 of old noble stock.

S-Lt in the French Guard at 15. Service in the American war of Independence, at Caracas and Saint-Dominque. Col. 1788. Follows Nassau to Russia in 1789 and offers his services to Catherine the next year. Fights Sweden 1790 and Turkey 1791. Viborg (in command of a gun boat-flotilla), Fredriksdamm, Ismael and Matschin.

Military tourism. Joins Saxe-Teschen in Netherlands.

With Saxe-Coburg in Netherlands. Regimental command "back" in Russia. Crimea.

 

 

Maj-Gen.

 

Lt-Gen. Count.

 

 

 

 

Commands division at Austerlitz. His sarcastic post-battle writings insults almost the entire high command and he offers to resign.

Comes out remarkably untouched by the rows following Austerlitz.

On the Turkish frontier.

Still on the Turkish frontier.

On the Danube.

Still on the Danube.

Briefly in command of Army of Moldavia.

Divisional command under Chichagov. Beresina and Vilna.

Blockades Thorn. Bautzen. Does well as corps and wing commander in Army of Silesia, despite being Blücher's antithesis. Lövenberg, Godberg, Katzbach, Möckern amd Leipzig.

In France under Blücher. Soissons, Rheims, Chalons, La Villette and Montmartre. Returns to Russia to command army of Volhynia after the armistice. Order of St-Andrew.

Operations in Alsace and Lorraine.

Governor of Odessa in 1822. Army Command aganist the Turks in 1828. Dies of cholera in Odessa, 1831

A quite odd and entertaining character that loved riddles and practical jokes. He was a skilled and brave commander, that despite being an archetypical intellectual French aristocrat was most popular with his Russian troops and very much admired for his kindness. Even Blücher found him hard to dispose of.

Marshal Jéan Lannes, Duke of Montebello

Born a stablehand's second son 1769 in Lectoure. Becomes a dyer's apprentice.

Volunteers and is elected S-Lt the same day.

Under Augereau the Pyrenees. In his first fight he finds his natural calling, leading mad charges. Cpt. Wounded in the arm at Banyuls. Villelongue. Col of Grenadiers.

Pyrenees. Boulou and Ripoll. Still in Augereau's Division.

Marries a baker's daughter. AoIty with Augereau. First Loano.

Millesimo, Dego, Ceva, Plasencia, Fombio, Lodi, Mantua, Bassano and Arcola. Continuously leading mad charges, wounded four times.

GdB. Negotiates with the Pope.

Prepares AoOri before departure. Alexandria and Cairo Rising. Has endless rows with Murat.

El Arish. Leads the massacres at Jaffa. Acre and 1st Aboukir. Badly wounded in the troat. Divorces his unfaithfull wife. Involved in Napoleon's Coup.

General de Division. AoRes. Corps command at Aosta, Chatillon, Montebello and Marengo. Marries again, this time very happily.

Mismanages military funds while equiping the Guards. Scandalized.

1802 emissary to Portugal, 1803 commands the Camp of Ambleteuse, 1804 Marshal.

V Corps. Wertingen and Ulm. Skillfully commands left wing at Austerlitz.

V Corps. Shines at Saalfeld and Jena. Fights twice his own numbers at Pultusk. Wounded and sick for five months.

New financial irregularities. Screens Danzig with the newly formed Reserve Corps. Heilsberg and Friedland, his perhaps finest achievement.

Duke of Montebello. Spain. Victorious at Tudela. Almost killed by falling of a horse.

Besieges and captures Zaragoza. Provsional, later II Corps on the Danube. Breaks the Austrian center at Abensberg. Landshut, Eggmühl and Amstettin. Suicidal heroics at Ratisbon. Captures Vienna. Looses both legs at Aspern-Essling and dies a few days later.

Buried in the Pantheon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A small, rough and rather straightforward person, full of boundless courage and energy. His amazing will to study and improve his skills made him evolve from crazed fire-eater to one of the best corps commanders ever. Being of Napoleons few close friends he was later close to canonized by his master.

General de Division Pierre Bellon Lapisse, Duke of Sainte-Helene

Born a weawer's son in Lyons 1762.

Joins the Army in 1778. In America with Lafayette 1780-1783 and makes Serg on his return to France. In 1789 he is made Lt in a Corsican volunteer unit.

AoIty.

 

 

Still in Italy.

 

 

Piedmont.

Makes GdB under Soult. Stockach and Zürich.

Italy.

 

Camp de Brest.

Commands brigade in VII Corps. Bavaria. Feldkirch.

VII Corps. Jena and Golymin. Made GdD on New Years Eve.

Divisional command in I Corps. Friedland.

I Corps in Spain. Espinosa and Madrid.

With I Corps. Ucles and Medellin. Mortaly wounded at Talavera.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another fine French divisional commander.

General der Kavalerie Prince Jéan de (von) Lichtenstein

Born 1760 in Vienna.

 

 

 

 

AoRhi.

 

 

With Karl. Stockach.

Hohenlinden.

 

 

Leads units escaping from Ulm. Commands Cavalry Reserve at Austerlitz.

Refuses to become Prince of The Rhine Confederacy.

 

 

Commands Reserve Corps. Ratisbon. Aspern-Essling and Wagram.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dies in Vienna 1836

A sworn enemy of Napoleon that was one of Karl's closer friends. He is not to be confused with Moritz and Fredrich Liechtenstein.

Marshal André Jéan Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling.

Born 1758 in Nice of mixed French-Italian-Jewish decent. A wine-merchant's son who got orphaned at an early age and spent his youth working as a ship's boy. Never learns to read properly.

In the Italian Army 1775-89. SergMaj. Joins the Var National Guards 1791 after a brief stint a smuggler and fruit trader. Elected Maj.

AoIty. Lt-Col.

AoIty. GdB. Distinguished service at Toulon. GdD.

AoIty. Distinguished service. Sick for a long period.

Twice defeated at Melogno. Loano.

AoIty. Skillfully commands Division in all major actions. Montenotte, Dego, Lodi, Castiglione, Roveredo, Primolando, 1st Bassano, and Calderio. Victorious at Roveredo. Arcola and Mantua.

AoIty. Rivoli. Brings the news of Leoben home to Paris.

Occupies Papal States. Dismissed after mutinies caused by his stealing from the army chest. Divisional Command in Army of Mayene. Named for various political appointments.

Leads Swiss campaign with Joubert. Defeated at Zürich but eventually routs Suvorov in a second battle there. Reluctantly takes command of AoIty.

Captured after leading a masterfull defence of Genoa. Commands the united French Armies in Italy after Marengo. Again relieved because of his flair for self-enrichment.

In semi-volontary semi-retirement as he is against (or at least not in support of) Napoleon being made consul for life.

Marshal 1804.

Commands AoIty in a careless fashion. Verona and Caldiero. Invades Neaples.

Conquers Naples and places Joseph on the throne. Loots most energetically.

Briefly in Command of V Corps during the summer. Defends central Poland.

Duke of Rivoli. Looses an eye in a hunting accident. (Most likely Napoleon's fault.)

IV Corps. Landshut and Ebelsberg. Has his finest hours at Aspern-Essling and Wagram, were he saves the day despite being confined to a carriage. Znaim.

Made Prince. Commands Army of Portugal with mistress Henriette Leberton in tow. Poor and uninterested performance at Ciudad Rodrigo, Almeida and Busaco.

Fuentes de Oñoro. His health and ability is in decline. Relieved in Disgrace. Retires.

 

Chief of Toulon Military District.

The Burbons refuses to recognise him as being French.

Sides with Napoleon in an allmost uninterested fashion. Commands Paris National Guards. Refuses to try Ney.

Dies 1817.

A complex and strong-willed character that did not handle being in Napoleon's shadow too well. Despite his greed and other character flaws, he was a truly stellar corps commander when under fire, displaying both cunning and almost arrogant daring.

General Michael Friedrich Benoit (Benedict?) von Melas, Freiherr

Born in 1729 in Schäßburg the son of a German-Transylvanian priest.

Enters Austrian service in 1746. Distinguished service in The Seven Years War. Marries into nobility 1768. Makes General fighting the Turks in1789.

 

Commands brigade on Sambre.

FML. Pfzalz.

Recaptures Mainz and Mannheim.

Tempoary commander of AoIty. Commands Column in Castiglione camapaign.

Mantua. Resigns due to illness.

 

Recalled and made General of Cavalry. Commander of AoIty. Cassovo, Savigano and Chamoinet. With Suvarov at Novi. Commander of the MTO.

Overruns North-West Italy. Besieges and captures Genoa. Defeated at Marengo. Convention of Alessandria. Leads Austrian withdrawal from Italy.

Commander of "Inner Austria."

Retires from service in 1803.

 

Presides over Mack's trial. Dies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A highly competent, but slightly outdated, solider with half a century of service to his name, often as a hard-charging cavalry leader. Held in high regard by both Napoleon and Suvarov.

General of Infantry Michail Andreevich Miloradovich, Count

Born 1771. Rises in the ranks under Suvarov's wings.

 

 

Poland.

 

 

 

 

With Suvarov. Novi. Defends St. Gotard Pass.

 

 

 

Covers the Russian retreat from the Danube together with Bagration. His Division is shattered at Austerlitz.

Against the Turks. His Corps liberates Bucharest.

Still Against the Turks. Victorious at Turbat and Obelishty.

Governor of Kiev.

 

 

 

Corps command. Taurino. On the right wing at Borodino . Evacuates Moscow. Leads the pursuit. Traps Davout at Fiodoroivskoy. Vyazma and Krasnoe.

Campaigns in Germany. Lützen. Fights rearguard actions back to Bautzen. Dresden and Kulm. Commands the United Guards at Leipzig.

Campaign in France.

 

Governor of St.Petersburg 1818. KIlled while trying unarmed to supress the 1825 Decembrists rising in St. Petersburg.

Another of Suvarov's talented young fighters. Known for his humour, calm and fairness to his subordinates. Handled independent command well.

Marshal Bon Adrien Jannot (de) Moncey, Duke of Conegliano

Born 1754 a lawyer's son in Besancon.

Enlists in 1769, and embarks on a quite erratic military career. Commissioned in 1779, Cpt. 1791. Ads "de Moncey" to his name when he buys an eastate named "Mocey" in 1789.

 

In The Pyrenees.GdB.

Pyrenees. GdD. Captures San Sebastian.

Commands Army of Western Pyrenees.

Pyrenees

Branded a royalist and forced to retire.

 

Returned to favour.

Switzerland. Commands corps in AoRes. Occupies Milan. Misses Marengo.

Inspector General of the Gendarmerie.

Marshal.

Administrative posts.

 

 

Duke of Conegliano. Spain. Leads III Corps on a wild adventure through Valencia. Tudela and Zaragoza. Accused of being too kind to the Spanish.

Administrative posts.

 

 

 

 

Commands National Guards of Paris. Clichy.

Little involvement but imprisoned anyway by the Bourbons. Refuses to try Ney.

Restored. Conquers Catalonia in 1823. Governor of Les Invalides 1824. Dies 1842 in Paris.

The Grand Old Man of the Marshals was very much respected for his honesty. He was a stern and efficient administrator who also had a knack for fighting in mountains. He eventually got to bury Napoleon in Les Invalides.

Marshal Georges Mouton Count Lobau

Born a baker's son 1770 in Phalsbourg.

Volunteers and is elected Lt. On the Moselle.

 

On the Rhine.

AoIty.

Mantua. With Joubert.

Mantua.

 

 

With Massena. Badly wounded.

 

 

GdB. ADC to Napoleon. Austerlitz.

Jena.

Eylau. Badly wounded at Friedland. GdD.

Spain under Bessiéres and Soult. Medina del Rio Seco and Burgous.

Again Napoleon's ADC on the Danube. Leads the mad assault on Landshut. Aspern-Essling and Wagram. Count. Are from now referred to as Lobau.

 

 

On Napoleon's Staff in Russia.

Saxony. Lützen and Dresden. Takes over I Corps. Taken prisoner when Dresden surrenders.

Released after Napoleons abdication.

VI Corps. Waterloo. Captured at Plancenoit.

Spends a few years in exile before returning to France. Enters politics as a liberal and puts down Bonapartist riots in 1831. Made Marshal the same year. Dies in 1838.

One of Napoleon's favourite ADC's. A spirited divisional commander who was known to know well when to be prudent and when to be insanely brave.

Joachim Murat King of Neaples

Born 1776 as the 12th son of a innkeeper.

Destined for priesthood but joins the cavalry in 1787 to escape creditors. Dismissed in 1790 and works a while as a grocer.

Enters the Constitutional Guard and earns a reputation as a devoted revolutionary. S-Lt. AoNor.

Chief of Squadron. AoNor.

Dabbles in politics and intrigues against his Regimental Commander. Almost executed.

Out of luck. Meets Napoleon as he is involved in supressing the Paris riots.

GdB (?) On the Staff of AoIty. Chases women on an epic scale.

Rivioli and Tagliamento. Congress of Rastadt.

AoOri.

Captures Mustapha Pasha at 1st Aboukir and is shot through both cheeks. GdD. Involved in Napoleon's coup. Commands Consular Guard.

Marries Caroline Bonaparte who rapidly takes charge of promoting her husbands career. Commands AoRes's cavalry. Marengo. Commands Army of Southern Italy.

Italy.

Various Italian missions. Governor of Paris. Involved in the Duc d'Enghien-affair. One of the least tested men to make Marshal in 1804.

Grand Admiral. (!) Prince. Commands Cavalry Reserve in an awkward fashion. Wertingen. Incurs Napoleon's wrath as he captures Vienna. Austerlitz.

Duke of Cleve-Berg. Grows into a skilled, but impulsive, cavalry commander. Jena. Pursues the Prussian Army into extinction. Lübeck, Warsaw and Golymin.

Has his moment in history as he leads the perhaps most spectacular cavalry charge ever at Eylau. Guttstadt, Heilsberg and Köningsberg. Tilsit.

Briefly King of Spain. Dos Mayos. Rightly feels that Napoleon has set him up. Bails out and becomes King of Naples. Captures Capri.

Naples. A attempt to invade Sicily fails.

Hard at work as king. Is suprisingly effective, despite that a lot of cash and time is spent on opera and festivals.

Still in Naples. Reputedly bullied by his wife.

In Russia. Commands Cavalry Reserve and advance guards. Vilna, Ostronovo and Smolensk. In the thick of it at Borodino. Captures Moscow. Defeated at Vinkovno. Briefly commands the Army after Napoleon's departure before sneaking away himself.

Secretly negotiates with the Allies. Army command in Saxony. Fights well at Dresden, Libertwolkwitz and Leipzig. Returns to Naples.

Switches side to save his crown. Fights Eugene in Northern Italy.

Betrayed by the Allies he first tries to join Napoleon and then champion a united Italian state. Defeated at Gaeta and eventually captured, tried for disturbing the peace and shot in Pizzo.

 

The Ultimate Cavalryman was quite a complex character. Rash, charismatic, vain and a spectacular dresser. Loved by his men and a inspired, self-taught tactician, but somewhat at a loss with higher command. He took his role as king seriosly and was admired for his kindness. He was said to be proud that he had never killed a man.

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, King of Italy

Born the second son of a lawyer on 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica.

Enters l'Ecole Militarie 1784 and is commissioned into the artillery 1785. Spends a lot of time in Corsica meddling in politics and supporting his family. Rejoins the army 1791. Lt.

In Paris as the Terror begins. Elected Lt-Col on Corsica.

First combat at La Madalena. The Bonaparte Clan moves to Paris. Siege of Toulon. GdB.

Commands AoIty's artillery. Briefly imprisoned in Paris.

Out of favour. Reinstalled to head the Topographic Bureau (what passed for a French General Staff). Disperses riots in Paris. GdD. Commands Army of the Interior.

Marries Josephine. Commands AoIty. Two years of spectacular operations: Montenotte, Millesimo, Modovi, Lodi, Borghetto, St. Geroge, 1st Lonato, Castiglione, Roveredo, Primolando, 1st Bassano, Cerea, St. Georges and 2nd Bassano. Defeated at Caldiero, but settles the score at Arcola.

San Marco, Rivoli, La Favorita and Mantua. Peace of Campo Formio. Treaty of Tolentino. Appointed to command the AoEng.

Commands AoOri. Malta, Alexandria, Damanhur, Shubba Kit and The Pyramids. Rules in Cairo.

Syria. El Arish, Gaza and Jaffa. Besieges Acre. Mount Tabor. 1st Aboukir. Returns to France. The Brumaire Coup makes him Consul. First Consul. Financial reforms.

Commands of the AoRes. Italy. Montebello and Marengo. Convention of Alessandria. Survives assassination attempt.

Peace of Luneville. Concordat with the Pope.

1802: Peace of Amiens; Consul for life; Institutes The Legion of Honour. 1803: War with England, Camp of Boulogne. 1804: Has the Duke of Enghien executed. Civil Code. Crowned Emperor. Creates the Marshalcate.

King of Italy. War against Austria. Elchingen, Haslach, Ulm, Vienna, Hollabrünn and Austerlitz. One fo the most spectacular campaigns ever is closed with the Peace of Pressburg.

Creates Rhine Confederacy and dissolves the Holy Roman Empire. War against Prussia: Schleiz, Jena, Berlin and Warsaw. The Continental System.

War in Poland: Stralsund, Bergfriede and Allenstein. Comes close to defeat at Eylau. Guttstadt and Heilsberg. Victory at Friedland. Treaty of Tilsit. Treaty of Fontainebleau.

Teaty of Bayonne. Spain. Somosierra, Madrid and Benavente.

A fumbling start on the Danube. Abensberg, Landshut, Eggmühl, Ratisbon, Vienna, Aspern-Essling and Wagram. Peace of Schönbrunn. Divorces Josephine and considers marrying the Tsar's sister.

Marries Marie-Louise.

Begins preparing for Russian campaign.

Dresden Conference. Invades Russia. Vilna, Ostronovo, Vitebsk, Krasnoe, Smolensk, Valutino, Schivardino, Borodino, Moscow, Maloyaroslavetz, Krasnoe and Berezina. At times he seem depressed.

Campaign in Saxony. Weissenfels, Victorious at Lützen and Bautzen. Buntzlau, Dresden, Gross-Seydlitz and Geishubel. Defeated at Leipzig. Hanau.

Defends France. Brienne, La Rothiére, Champaubert, Montmiral, Chateau-Thierry, Vauchamps, Craonne, Laon, Rheims and Fismes. Defeated at Arcis-sur-Aube and Valcour. Fontainebleau. Abdicates. Flees to Elba.

Escapes from Elba. Leads AoNor to Charleroi, Ligny and Waterloo. Abdicates and offers the new government his services as a General. Imprisoned at St Helena.

Spends the rest of his life in exile on St Helena. Dies 5 May 1821. His body was returned to France and buried in Les Invalides 1840.

The driving force behind an entire era. Vain, dictatorial and of dubious political morale and talent, he remains probably the greatest military commander ever.

Feldmarschall-Leutnant Andreas von O'Reilly, Graf

Born at Ballenlogh, Ireland.

Volounteers for the Austrian Army during the Seven Years War. Marries into the Bohemian nobility 1784 and becomes both wealthy and a Graf. Mj during the War of Bavarian Succession. Lt-Col against the Turks 1789. Col in 1790.

 

 

Mj-Gen.

 

Serves with Karl. Commands advance-guards with great skill. Amberg. Defeats Desaix near Ulm.

 

FML.

1st Zürich.

Commands Division. Montebello operations. Right wing at Marengo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Governor of Vienna. Left to surender the city to Napoleon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A skilled advance-guard commander with a distinctly 18th century-style internationalistic military career.

Field Marshal Karl Peter Ott von Bartokéz, Baron

Born a Hungarian commoner in Gran in 1738.

The Seven Years War starts his long and distiguished service in the Hapsburg Armies. Lt-Col fighting the Turks in 1789. MTO and ennoblement in 1791.

 

Maj-Gen. Low Countries.

Low Countries. Routs an at least twenty times stronger force at Villers-en-Cauchies.

 

Commands brigade in AoIty. Lonato.

FML.

 

With Suvorov. Cassano and Trebbia. Leads left wing at Novi. Ancona.

Captures Genoa. Montebello. Commands left wing at Marengo. Retires.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dies at Ofen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A dashing and skilled cavalry commander. One of the best Austrian "corps-level" commanders of the Revolutionary era.

Marshal Nicolas Charles Oudinot Duke of Reggio

A brewer's son, born in 1767 in Bar le Duc.

Serves 1784-87 in the Infantry and retires as Sgt. Takes care of his father's business until the outbreak of the revolution. Volunteers and made Cavalry Cpt. Commands Meuse National Guard 1790.

AoRhi. Lt-Col.

Haguenau (wounded in the head) and Chateau de Bitche.

AoMos. GdB. Treves. Breaks leg. Befreinds Davout.

Wounded a record-breaking six times in the same combat. Neckerau. Austrian prisoner.

Released. Badly wounded at Ingolstädt (shot once and sabered four times).

AoEng.

AoHel. Massena calls him "the perfect seccond in command" despite some violent disagreements.

GdD. Zürich (shot in chest) and Constance. C-o-S AoHel. Wounded twice.

Massena's C-o-S. Genoa. Distiguishes himself with Brune at Minico.

 

 

Commands Grenadier Division. Wertingen, Hollabrünn (wounded) and Austerlitz.

Recovers from last years wounds.

Back in service. Ostrolenka and Danzig. Falls of a horse and breaks a leg. Still commands Division at Friedland. Involved in the Tilsit conference.

Count. Governor of Erfurt.

On the Danube. Hard fighing at Landshut and Aspern-Essling (wounded). Takes over II Corps and looses most of one ear as he goes beserk at Wagram. Somewhat suprisingly made Marshal.

Duke. Berthier concludes that he is quite unable to handle a formation larger than a division.

Administers French takeover of Holland.

II Corps. Dunaburg. Wounded at1st Potolsk. Loshnitsa. Wounded while outdoing himself at Beresina. While recovering he is hit by a falling roof and is almost captured.

XII Corps. Heavy fighting at Bautzen. Dennewitz. Leads the Northen Army to defeat at Gross-Beeren. Commands Young Guard at Leipzig.

VII Corps. Brienne (two wounds), Guignes, La Rothiére and Arcis-sur-Aube (last wound). Arranges the with the Allies. Made Commander of the Royal Grenadiers, the remnants of the Old Guard.

Worn out. Refuses to join Napoleon. Exiled.

Commander of the Royal Guard. Leads I Corps into Spain in 1823. Governor of Madrid. Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor 1839. Governor of Les Invalides. Dies 1847.

A tenacious and absolutely fearless brawler that thanks to his loyalty to Napoleon came to command armies despite his quite obvious lack of talent for it. Oddly enough he was also known to be a kind and caring man. Has the dubious honor of being the most shot-up (at least 22 serious wounds) higher officer of the era. Despite this his four sons did all chose military careers (what his seven daughters did is unknown).

Lieutenant-General Ignacy Jozef Przybyczewsky (Prshibyshevskii or Przhibyshevskii) Iakovlevich

Born 1755 in the Polish-speaking part of Russia.

 

 

 

 

 

Commander of Kursk musketeer regiment.

 

Lt-Gen

 

 

 

With the Central Reserve. Commands 3rd column at Austerlitz. Made prisoner.

Retires.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Has perhaps the most odd name of the era. Aristcratic, long face. That is all so far.

General de Division Count Jéan Rapp

Born 1771. Meant to become a preacher, but instead joines the cavalry in 1788.

 

AoMos.

Commissioned into the 10th Casseurs a Cheval.

Aide to Desaix.

Rastadt, Ettlingen, Neresheim and Biberach.

In Italy.

AoOri, still with Desaix. Ramanihe.

Upper Egypt.

Back in Italy. At Marengo Desaix dies in his arms. Aide to the First Consul.

Rises the Mamelukes of the Guard.

GdB 1803.

On Napoleon's Staff. Austerlitz. GdD.

Jena (wounded for the ninth time) and Golymin. Governor of Danzig.

Danzig. On Napoleon's staff.

 

Count. Aspern-Essling.

Out of favour after having opinions on Napoleons lovelife.

 

On Napoleon's Staff. Smolensk, Borodino, Krasnoe and Beresina.

Defends Danzig. Prisoner.

In Russian Captivity.

Commands the small AoRhi. Fights La Suffel, the last battle of the entire era.

Holds Court posts after 1817. Dies 1821.

A skilled and inspiring fighting General that was wounded time and time again.

Field Marshall Franz von Rosenberg-Orisini, Prince

Born in 1746 (?) into the Italian part of Austria's nobility.

 

 

 

 

Distiguished service with AoRhi. Rastadt, Amberg and Würzburg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

With Karl in Italy.

 

 

 

IV Corps. Teugen-Hausen and Dinzling. His corps is routed at Eggmühl. Aspern-Essling. Fights Davout at Wagram. Falls out with Karl and is excluded from the cellebrations after the campaign.

 

 

 

 

 

 

His date of death is unknown.

A quite anonymous figure, who despite his skillfull fighting at Wagram seem to have been deliberatly left out of the Austrian "Big Picture."

General de Division Claude Carra, comte Saint-Cyr, a.k.a. "Carra Saint-Cyr"

A courtier's son born in 1760.

Comissioned into the infantry in 1774. Serves with Lafayette in America.

Leaves the army due to poor health. Later volunteers into service again.

Serves with diplomat Aubert-Dubayet in Turkey.

 

GdB.

On mission to the Ottoman Empire.

Consul-General to Wallachia.

 

Returns to France and marries Aubert-Dubayet's widow. AoIty. Wounded.

Brigade command in AoRes. In Napoleon's "revised" history of Marengo he gets credit for commanding the right flank in place of the disgraced Monnier.

 

GdD in 1803. Trains Division in Aurgeau's corps.

Leaves command just befor the start of the Ulm campaign. Administrative duties.

 

Governor of Magdeburg.

Divisional command in IV Corps. Heilburg.

Baron. On the Rhine.

Fights hard with IV Corps on the Danube. Landshut, Eggmühl, Ebelsberg, Aspern-Essling, Wagram and Znaim. Governor of Hamburg.

Governor of Hamburg.

 

 

Out of favour after being involved in the Lüneburg debacle. Recalled to briefly command division under Vandamme.

Governor of Giuana.

 

Returns from Giuana in 1819. Leaves public life in 1832 and dies two years later.

An fine divisional commander that still mainly held administrative posts. An health problem might have played a part in this.

General de Division Louis Vincent Joseph le Blond, comte de Saint-Hilare

Born in Ribermont1766.

Cadet in the cavalry 1777 (age 11). Adopted by his regiment. West Indies 1781-85. Lt. in 1788.

Cpt. Army of the Alps.

Toulon.

AoIty. Under Massena and LaHarpe.

GdB. Little Gibraltar. Loses two fingers at Loano.

AoIty. Again with Massena. Gavardo, Rocca d'Anfo and Bassano.

Governor of Lodil.

Administrative duties.

GdD.

Leads National Guards to Suchet's aid.

 

Camp St. Omer.

Division in IV Corps. Ulm. Wounded at Austerlitz.

Still IV Corps. Jena and Bergfried. Poland.

More hard fighting in Poland. Ziegelhoff, Eylau and Heilsberg.

Covered in riches and favours. Commands Division i AoRhi. Count of the Empire.

Danube. With III and later II Corps. Spectacular fighting at Teugen-Hausen, Schierling and Eggmühl. Wounded several times at Aspern-Essling and dies a few days later.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A brilliant and imaginative divisional commander that seem to have been almost universally liked and respected. Were in line for Marshal's rank when he was killed.

General de Division Raymond Gaspard de Bonardi, comte de Saint-Sulpice

Born 1761 in Paris. Of Noble birth.

Commisioned into the Dragoons in 1775 (?).

Serves in the revolutionary armies.

Sacked beacuse of his ancestry.

 

Reinstalled. AoIty.

AoIty.

Holland.

On the Rhine.

Starts serving under du'Hautpoul.

AoRhi. Stockach, Höchstädt and Hohenlinden.

 

GdB 1803. Equerry (Master of Horse) to the Empress.

In 2nd Heavy Cavalry Division under D'Hautpoul. Austerlitz.

Commands brigade in 2nd Heavy Cavalry Division. Jena. The Pursuit across Prussia.

Hof and Eylau. Wounded, but takes over the Division after D'Hautpoul's death. GdD.

Count.

In Command of his Division on the Danube. Abensberg and Landshut.Decisive charge at Eggmühl. Aspern-Essling and Wagram.

With the Grendammerie in France.

 

Russia with the Dragoons of the Guard. The campaign takes a heavy toll on him.

Semi-retired as Governour of Fontainebleau. Saxony.

Lyons.

Retires.

Dies 1835.

One of the mainstays of the French Heavy cavalry. Recognised as a superb leader of Heavy Horse.

Marshal-General of France Nicholas Jéan de Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia

Born 1769 as a Gascon notary's son. Supports his Family after his father's death.

Joins the army in 1785 allegedly to avoid become a baker. Makes Serg. in 1791.

Commissioned. On the Rhine under Kellermann. Maj.

AoRhi. Landau.

On Lefebvre's staff. Shines at Fleurus. GdB.

 

Altenkirchen.

 

In AoRhi.

AoHel. Stockach. GdD. Seccond Zürich.

Commands Division under Massena. Captured and wounded during a sally from Genoa. Exchanged. Pacifies Piedmont.

In Murat's service.

Commands Camp St Omer. Marshal in 1804.

IV Corps. Ulm and Austerlitz were Napoleon runs most of his Corps.

IV Corps. Leads Right Wing at Jena with great coolness.

IV Corps. Left flank at Eylau. Heilsberg and Köningsberg.

Amasses great wealth. Duke of Dalmatia. II Corps in Spain. Reynosa. Pursuit of Moore.

Corunna. Invades Portugal. Accused of intriguing for the Portuguese Crown. 1st and 2nd Oporto. Quarrels with Ney back in Spain. Made C-in-C of Northern Army. Victorious at Ocaña. Advisor to Joseph.

Chief of Southern Spain. Governor of Andalusia. Seville and Cadiz. Constantly at odds with Joseph.

Andalusia. The butchery at Albuera. Relieves Badajoz. Tarifa. His wife hates Spain.

Granada. Recaptures Madrid and restores order after Salamanca.

Commands Imperial Guard in Saxony. Berthier's "understudy" and wing commander. Lützen and Bautzen. Made C-in-C of Spain. Fights a excellent defensive campaign in The Pyrenees. Maya-Roncesvalles, Souaren, Vera, Bidassoa, Nivelle, Nive and St. Pierre.

Orthez, Tarbes and Toulouse. Leaves Spain the owner of a large collection of priceless Spanish art and submits to the Bourbons.

Cheerfully joins Napoleon as AoNor's C-o-S. Makes a lot of blunders at Ligny and Waterloo. Leads the Army's survivors to safety after Napoleon's flight.

Exiled to Düsseldorf. Restored to favour in 1820 and embarks on a long and distinguished political career. Minister of War and President of the Council of Ministers. Represents France at Queen Victoria's coronation. Made Marshal-General of France 1847 and retires the same year. Dies 1851 at Soultberg.

Somewhat oddly elevated to national hero after the wars, "The Finest Tactician In Europe," was also a greedy, independent, man with high ambitions. Still, he allways managed to remain in Napoleon's favour no matter what he did. His finest achievement was the stubborn defence of France in 1813-14.

Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera

Born a silk-merchant's son in 1770.

Runs away to join the Army 1787. Joins the National Guard in 1791 and is commissioned to battalion command.

 

Toulon. Personally captures General O'Hara.

AoIty. Lt-Col.

In Massena's Division. Loano.

With Massena. Dego, Lodi, Castiglione and Arcola.

Rivoli. Recognized as a talented and resourceful officer.

GdB. Brune's' C-o-S in Switzerland.

Marries Joseph Bonaparte's sister-in-law's daughter(!). GdD. C-o-S of AoIty. In command after Joubert's death at Novi.

Divisional/Wing command in AoIty. While Massena is holed up in Genoa, he commands of the French forces still at large on the Riviera. Defeats Elsnitz and eventually recaptures Genoa.

Governor of Padua.

Inspector of Infantry. Trains division at Boulogne.

Commands Division in V Corps. Ulm, Hollabrun and Austerlitz.

Still in V Corps. Saalfeld, Jena and Pultusk.

Ostrolenka. Assumes command of V Corps.

Count. Divisional command III Corps. Spain.

Zaragosa. Assumes command over the demoralized III Corps and starts to transform it into the crack Army of Aragon. Fights Blake in several engagements.

Failed invasion of Valencia. Forces O'Donnel to surrender Lerida. Captures Tortosa and Tarragona.

Made Marshall for his service in Spain, an unique feat. Manages (with the sterling aid of his wife) to rule North-East Spain in a just and honest mannert that impresses even the Spanish. Aragon prospers.

Barcelona. Conquers Valencia. Fights Balke again. Duke.

Defeated at Castella but still manages to relieve Tarragona. Nominated Colonel General of the Imperial Guard (a honrary title) after Bessiéres death.

Wins a final victory at Molinos de Rey before evacuating Catalonia. His army is renamed Army of the South. Keeps on seving the Bourbons after Napoleon's abdication.

Appointed to command the dimunitive Army of the Alps. Promptly invades Piedmont, but is driven back and forced to evecuate Lyons. Disgraced.

Restored in 1819, but lives a quiet life. Dies 1826, just 56 years old. The Bishop of Zaragoza is said to have held a mass to his memory.

Perhaps the most under-utilized of Napoleon's Marshals. A honest and hard-working administrator as well as a skillful and effective fighter. In Spain he did wonders with both the French Army's morale and the population under his control.

General de Division Domenique Joseph René Vandamme, Count of d'Unsebourg

Born in Dunkirk 1770.

Serves as a Volunteer in the West Indies and seems to have functioned as an officer. Deserts in 1790 and joins the Republican Army the next year.

Raises his own company of Chasseurs and fights in Holland.

GdB.

With Moreau.

Temporarly suspended due to swearing and looting.

 

 

AoEng.

GdD. 1st Stockach. Holland. Bergen and Alkmaar.

AoRhi. 2nd Stockach and Memmingen.

Accused of stealing from public funds.

Under Soult at Camp St Omer.

Commands Division in IV Corps. Ulm and Austerlitz.

Dismissed by Soult after some epic arguments. On Napoleon's staff. Commands Württenberg Division reducing fortresses. Magdeburg. His German troops loves him.

Administrative duties and advisor to Jerome.

Made Duke.

Danube. Commands Württenberg Division. Abensbertg, Landshut and Eggmühl. Captures Linz. Responsible for the Vienna area.

Quarrels with people. Calls Napoleon "a nobody."

 

Commands Westphalian Corps in Russia, loots energetically and is dismissed after quarreling with Jerome.

Under Davout. Hamburg and Magdeburg. Saxony. I Corps. Pirna. Taken prisoner as his corps is but destroyed at Kulm. Accuses the Tsar of killing his father.

Released and exiled by the Burbons.

Handles III Corps well Ligny and Wavre. Tries to convince Grouchy to attack Brussels. Again exiled.

Lives in The United States until 1819. Pardoned by the Burbons and formally retired 1825. Dies 1830.

A bright and talented, but genuinely unsympathetic, man that was in constant conflict with people around him. He was brutal, rude and greedy, but was known to take excellent care of his troops. Napoleon tolerated him as he was an excellent, hard-fighting commander.

Marshal Claude-Victor Perrin, Duke of Belluno

Born the son of a notary (or wealthy farmer) in Lamarche 7th December 1764.

1780 trumpeter in the Grenoble Artillery Regiment. Leaves the army in 1791 and marres before joining the Valence National Guards. Made Sgt.

AoIty. Rises in ranks, makes Lt-Col.

Distinguished service at Coaraze and Toulon. Severely wounded at Little Gibraltar. GdB.

Commands brigades in Army of Eastern Pyrenees.

AoIty. Loano.

AoIty. Brigade under Augereau. Montenotte.

AoIty, Brigade under Massena. GdD. Fights in most major engagements.

12th Military District. Occupies Piedmont.

AoIty. Wounded at Trebbia.

Commands AoRes, then a corps in it. Shines at Montebello and Marengo. Diplomatic mission to Bavaria.

In Bavaria.

Command in Holland. As he is not too enthusiastic about Napoleon's crowning he does not get any corps to command.

Ambassador to Denmark.

C-o-S, V Corps. Works well with Lannes at Saalfeld, Jena and Pultusk.

X Corps. Briefly in Prussian capture (exchanged for Blücher ). Takes over I Corps. Breaks the Russian center at Friedland. Marshal. Governor of Prussia.

I Corps in Spain. Asturian campaign. Victorious at Espinosa despite several blunders.

Spain. Crushing victories at Ucles and Medellin. Casa des Salinas, Talavera and Ocana.

Andalusia. Cadiz.

Andalusia. Defeated at Barossa.

Leaves Spain. Russia, IX Corps reponsible for the rear areas. Victorious at 2nd Potolsk commanding both his own and Oudinot's corps. Protects the Beresina crossing.

II Corps, smashes allied left at Dresden. Vachau-Leipzig. Hanau.

Blunders on the Rhine frontier. II Corps. St Dizier, Brienne, La Rothiére, and Guignes. Relieved after argument with Napoleon at Montereau were his son-in-law was killed. Called back to command Young Guard. Wounded at Craonne.

With the Bourbons. Fled with Louis XVIII. Returns after Napoleon's flight and is involved in purging the army.

1821-23 Minister of War. Privy Council. Dies in Paris 1st March 1841. Married twice. The Belluno line died out in 1917.

One of the more sympathetic Marshals who's loyalty laid first with France. Despite that his temper sometimes got the better of him he was an throughout professional that handled independent command quite well. As he never got along well with Napoleon he never led anything much larger than a corps in battle.

Feldmarschall-Leutnant Ludwig von Vogelsang, Freiherr

Born 1748 into a Waloon dysnasty of soliders.

Thoroughly military educated. Joins the infantry. Maj fighting the rebellious Belgians in 1790.

 

Freiherr and Col. Commands IR 9.

 

 

Maj-Gen. On Lacy's staff advising the Emperor.

 

 

 

AoIty. Divisional Command. Montebello. Wounded at Marengo after routing the Consular Guard.

Made Freiherr.

 

AoIty. Commands Grenadier reserve at Caldiero.

 

 

 

Divisional Command in I Corps. Aspern-Essling.

Retires. Governor of Josphstadt.

 

 

 

 

 

Dies 1822

Unfortunately, there is very little gossip to be found about this, and many other, Austrian commanders.

Feldzeugmeister Freiherr Anton Ritter von Zach

Born the son of a doctor in Pest 1747.

Well educated in military engineering and made Cpt. of Engineers 1783. Fights the Turks, instrumental in Belgrade's fall 1789. Maj.

 

Rises Corps of Pioneers in Belgium. Lt-Col. Famars and Valenciennes.

On Bealieu's staff on the Rhine. Col.

Siege of Mainz.

Follows Bealieu to Italy as C-o-S. Voltri, Castiglione, Bassano and Mantua.

Comes out on top in the rows following the war.

Leads mapping of Venetia.

C-o-S AoIty. Magnano, Novi and Genoa. Maj-Gen. Knight of the MTO.

Melas' C-o-S. Genoa. Prisoner at Marengo. Exchanged and returns to serve as C-o-S.

Made Freiherr.

 

C-o-S of AoIty

 

 

 

 

Various administrative duties.

 

 

Governor of Moravia.

 

 

Made FMZ on his retirement in 1825. Dies the next year in Graz.

A renowned specialist on fortifications and artillery that wrote several manuals and reglements. His common origins and high education made him unpopular with his ennobled coleagues.

Name

Early Years

1792

1793

1794

1795

1796

1797

1798

1799

1800

1801

1802-04

1805

1806

1807

1808

1809

1810

1811

1812

1813

1814

1815

Later Years

Notes

ABBREVIATIONS:
 

Sergant - Serg. Sergant-Major - SergMaj. Sous-Lieutenant - S-Lt. Lieutenant - Lt. Captain (Hauptman) - Cpt. Major - Maj. Lieutenant Colonel - Lt-Col. Colonel - Col. General de Brigade - GdB. General de Division - GdD Major-General - Maj-Gen Feldmarschall-Leutnant - FML. Lieutenant-General (General-Leutnant) - Lt-Gen. Feldzeug-Meister - FZM.General der Kavalerie - GdK.

Chief of Staff - C-o-S. Army of the North - AoNor. Army of Italy - AoIty. Army of the Rhine - AoRhi. Army of the Moselle - AoMos. Army of England - AoEng. Army of Helvetia - AoHel. Army of The Orient - AoOri Maria Theresa Order - MTO



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